References and Annotated Bibliography
about big trefoil

compiled by Jonathan Christie

 Updated 2017

Primary sources used on my webpage

Kaiser, C.J. and M.E. Heath. 1990. Big trefoil: A new legume for pastures on fragipan soils. p. 191-194. In: J. Janick and J.E. Simon (eds.), Advances in new crops. Timber Press, Portland, OR.  

If you read only one article, read this one.

Frame, Chalton, Laidlaw. 1998 "Birdsfoot Trefoil & Greater Lotus" in Temperate and Forage Legumes. CAB Press. ISBN: 0-85199-214-5. 

If you get only one big book, this is the one.


Barry, T.N.; Allsop, T.F. and C. Redekopp. (1986) The role of condensed tannins in the nutritional value of Lotus pedunculatus for sheep. British Journal of Nutrition 56: 607-614.


Minn, B.R. & S.P. Hart (2003) Tannins for suppression of internal parasites. J. Anim. Sci. 81(E. Suppl. 2):E102 –E109.


Niezen, J.H., Waghorn, T.S., Charleston, W.A.G. and Waghorn, G.C. (1993) Internal parasites and lamb production–a role for plant containing condensed tannins. Proc. New Zealand Soc. Anim. Prod. 53: 235–238. & Niezen et al. (1998) Production, faecal egg counts, and worm burders of ewe lambs which grazed six contrasting forages. Veterinary Parasitology 80:15-27.


Purchas, R.W. & R.G. Keogh (1984) Fatness of lambs grazed on 'Grasslands Maku' Lotus and 'Grasslands Huia' white clover. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 44:219-222.


Ramirez-Restrepo, C.A.; Barry, T.N.; Lopez-Villalobos, N.; Kemp, P.D. and McNabb, W.C. (2004)

Use of Lotus corniculatus containing condensed tannins to increase lamb and wool production under commercial dryland farming conditions without the use of anthelmintics. Animal feed science and technology 117:85-105.

Hannaway & McGuire. 1981. Growing Big Trefoil for Forage. FS 258. Oregon State University Extension Service.

General Resources on Lotus


Oregon Big Trefoil Fact Sheet

Australian Fact Sheet on Big Trefoil

Use of trefoil in tropical forages.

The Lotus Newsletter


Use of Big Trefoil in Oregon & Washington coastal pastures.

Use of Big Trefoil in tropical (Hawaii) soil systems. Trefoil is about 1/3 of the way down.

Use of big trefoil in the Falklands.

Anonymous (1959) Pollination of Bird's Foot Trefoil. Amer. Bee Jour. 99:90-91. as cited in:

Oregon Coastal Pastures factsheet supporting Lotus. EM8645 (pdf)

Hannaway & McGuire. 1981. Growing Birdsfoot Trefoil for Forage. FS 259. Oregon State University Extension Service.





Trefoil: The Science and Technology of Lotus. CSSA Special Publications #28. ASA-CSSA.
--A comprehensive survey of the genus. Includes a good description of Lotus in reclamation.

Hafenrichter, Schwendiman, Harris, MacLauchlan, & Miller, 1979. Grasses & Legumes for Soil Conservation in the Pacific Northwest and Great Basin States. Agricultural Handbook #339. SCS-USDA.
--A good general handbook comparing many legumes. Contains many of the rarer plants.


Henson, 1962. The Trefoils: Adaptation & Culture. Agriculture Handbook no. 223. USDA.
--Older article, but full of good information. Difficult to find, though.


Howell, 1948. A Legume for Acid Soils: Lotus uliginosus (L. major). Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin #456, Oregon State University.
--Almost impossible to find now but worth reading.


Rhykerd, Johnson, & Hankins. 1981. "Big trefoil production and potential in Southern Indiana." Agronomy Guide AY-232. Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service.
--A discussion on big trefoil in Indiana and the foundation of the Kaiser cultivar.


Articles of Interest:


Edmeades, Blamey, Asher, & Edwards, 1991. "Effects of pH and Aluminum on the growth of temperate pasture species I & II." In Australian Agriculture Research 42:559-569 & 42:893-900.


Wheeler & Dodd, 1995. "The effect of aluminum on the growth of a range of temperate legume species and cultivars: A summary of results." In Plant Soil Interactions at Low pH (R.A. Date et al. eds.) pp. 433-437.

--These two articles present data showing aluminum tolerance of Lotus.


Shiferaw, Shelton, & So, 1992. "Tolerance of some subtropical pasture legumes to waterlogging." In Tropical Grasslands 26:3,187-195.
--Documents how big trefoil survives well in waterlogged conditions.


West, Dean, & Perceval, 1991. "The productivity of Maku Lotus as a forest understorey." In Proceedings of the New Zealand Grassland Association 53:169-173.
--Discusses how big trefoil is used to seed forest understoreys for habitat and to prevent erosion.


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